Sakhalin (tiếng Nga: Сахалин, phát âm [səxɐˈlʲin]) là một hòn đảo lớn ở phía bắc Thái Bình Dương, nằm giữa 45°50' và 54°24' vĩ Bắc.Hòn đảo là một phần của nước Nga, và cũng là hòn đảo lớn nhất của liên bang này.Về mặt hành chính, đảo là một phần của tỉnh Sakhalin. The cost will include an estimated US$1 billion to upgrade the island's infrastructure: roads, bridges, waste management sites, airports, railways, communications systems, and ports. Bears, foxes, otters, and sables are numerous, as are reindeer in the north, and musk deer, hares, squirrels, rats, and mice everywhere. Rejsy w Isola di Salina: zobacz recenzje i zdjęcia barów i klubów w Isola di Salina, Włochy w serwisie Tripadvisor. Of the approximately 400,000 people – mostly Japanese and Korean – who lived on South Sakhalin in 1944, about 100,000 were evacuated to Japan during the last days of the war. A large number of migrants were brought in from Korea. Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age. Później jednak żeglarze (Jean-François de La Pérouse i w 1805 Adam Johann von Krusenstern) sugerowali, że wyspa jest zapewne połączona przesmykiem z lądem. Na mocy układu rosyjsko-japońskiego z 1875 r. cały Sachalin stał się własnością Rosji, wchodząc do Obwodu Nadmorskiego. Za czasów wyprawy Czechowa na Sachalinie przebywało 5905 katorżników. Smaller minorities were the Ainu, Ukrainians, Tatars, Yakuts and Evenks. Pokryte są lodem od listopada do kwietnia. , The Qing dynasty established an office in Ningguta, situated midway along the Mudan River, to handle fur from the lower Amur and Sakhalin. Free parking. Od kontynentu oddziela ją Cieśnina Tatarska (szerokość w najwęższym miejscu 7,3 km), a od japońskiej wyspy Hokkaido dzieli ją Cieśnina La Pérouse’a. According to the Ming Shilu, these posts, like the position of headman were hereditary and passed down the patrilineal line. Fauna typowa dla syberyjskiej tajgi, nieco uboższa w porównaniu z kontynentem. By the beginning of the 19th century, the Japanese economic zone extended midway up the east coast, to Taraika. , In July 2013, Russian Far East development minister Viktor Ishayev proposed a railway bridge to link Sakhalin with the Russian mainland. Inizialmente, Sakhalin è stato identificato sulle mappe come una penisola, ma le spedizioni successive hanno fornito molte prove a favore dell'opinione che Sakhalin sia ancora un'isola. . cloudberry, cranberry, crowberry, red whortleberry), red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa), wild raspberry, and spiraea. In 1431, one such assistant commander, Alige, brought marten pelts as tribute to the Wuliehe post. In an early colonization attempt, a Japanese settlement was established at Ōtomari on Sakhalin's southern end in 1679. The consortium will also build, at Prigorodnoye, the first liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant to be built in Russia. Dokładniejsze informacje o tym, co należy poprawić, być może znajdują się w, Po wyeliminowaniu niedoskonałości należy usunąć szablon, przewrocie bolszewickim (rewolucji październikowej), myśliwce ZSRR zestrzeliły koreański samolot pasażerski, Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 г. Pomimo niezbyt sprzyjających warunków klimatycznych rozwija się turystyka: w 2019 r. wyspę odwiedziło ok. 305 tys. Leżący na północnym krańcu wyspy Przylądek Szmidta, również pokryty jest górami: Grzbietem Zachodnim i Wschodnim. Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast; and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls, and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, are found in many parts of the island. Sakhalin is beautiful, but has an undeveloped tourist sector. Russia has held all of the island since seizing the Japanese portion—as well as all the Kuril Islands—in the final days of World War II in 1945. The project is managed and operated by Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd.. Piltun-Astokhskoye oil field Lunskoye natural gas field Location of … In 1999, a ferry service was opened between the ports of Korsakov and Wakkanai, Japan, and operated through the autumn of 2015, when service was suspended. In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which declared that nationals of both countries could inhabit the island: Russians in the north, and Japanese in the south, without a clearly defined boundary between. In 1853–54, Nikolay Rudanovsky surveyed and mapped the island.. [page needed], After the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty (1234), the Mongols came under raids by the Nivkh people and the Udege peoples. Ainu) presence in the area otherwise dominated by the Gilemi or Jilimi (Nivkh and other Amur peoples). For the 2016 summer season, this route will be served by a highspeed catamaran ferry from Singapore named Penguin 33. The Dutch captain, however, was unaware that it was an island, and 17th century maps usually showed these points (and often Hokkaido as well) as being part of the mainland. Planowany jest eksport surowców z wyspy do Chin i Japonii. 1,777 reviews.  While the vast majority of Sakhalin Japanese and Koreans were gradually repatriated between 1946 and 1950, tens of thousands of Sakhalin Koreans (and a number of their Japanese spouses) remained in the Soviet Union. The oil and gas are also bound for East Asian markets. Po przewrocie bolszewickim (rewolucji październikowej) Sachalin został zajęty przez Białych, a w latach 1920–1925 przez Japonię. In 1732, 6 hala, 18 gasban, and 148 households were registered as tribute bearers in Sakhalin.  They cruised for bowhead and gray whales to the north and right whales to the east and south. In 1875, Japan ceded its claims to Russia in exchange for the northern Kuril Islands. 樺太, Karafuto) – wyspa na Oceanie Spokojnym u wybrzeży Rosji. With the exception of the Nayoro Ainu located on the west coast in close proximity to China, most Ainu stopped paying tribute to the Qing dynasty. The Qing imposed a fur tribute system on the region's inhabitants.  The Qing first asserted influence over Sakhalin after the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk, which defined the Stanovoy Mountains as the border between the Qing and the Russian Empire. Limited quantities of rye, wheat, oats, barley and vegetables are grown, although the growing season averages less than 100 days.. Поронай). As part of a nationwide Sino-French cartographic program, the Jesuits Jean-Baptiste Régis, Pierre Jartoux, and Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli joined a Chinese team visiting the lower Amur (known to them under its Manchu name, Saghalien Ula, i.e. The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more Arctic than that which exists at the present time, indicating that the connection between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was probably broader than it is now. Free Wifi. XIX w. był miejscem zsyłek i katorgi. The northernmost point of Sakhalin is Cape of Elisabeth on the Schmidt Peninsula, while Cape Crillon is the southernmost point of the island. Esegui il download di questa immagine stock: Grande Guerra Patriottica 1941~1945 monumento di Nogligi sull isola di Sakhalin - APK8PR dalla libreria Alamy di milioni di fotografie, illustrazioni e vettoriali stock ad alta risoluzione. Sakhalin was first settled by Japanese fishermen along its southern coasts. , The Sea of Okhotsk ensures that Sakhalin has a cold and humid climate, ranging from humid continental (Köppen Dfb) in the south to subarctic (Dfc) in the centre and north. Wzdłuż wybrzeża Morza Ochockiego ciągną się Góry Wschodniosachalińskie (Góra Łopatina 1609 m) oraz Grzbiet Susunajski (Góra Czechowa 1047 m). La Provincia di Sakhalin si trova nella zona più ad Ovest della Russia. Sakhalin's railway has a connection with the rest of Russia via a train ferry operating between Vanino and Kholmsk. г. Возвращения) 1325 n.p.m. Nel 1890 raggiunse attraverso la Siberia l'isola di Sachalin, sede di una colonia penale, e sulle condizioni disumane in cui vivevano i forzati scrisse L'isola di Sachalin.  Nearly two-thirds of Sakhalin is mountainous. In 1996, two large consortia signed contracts to explore for oil and gas off the northeast coast of the island, Sakhalin-I and Sakhalin-II. Two parallel ranges of mountains traverse it from north to south, reaching 600–1,500 m (2,000–4,900 ft). It is separated from the mainland by Tatar Strait, the width at the narrowest point, between the capes of Pogibi and Lazarev, is about 7 kilometers. In addition, Sakhalin-III-through-VI are in various early stages of development. Obecnie ludność wyspy to głównie Rosjanie (84%), Koreańczycy (5,6%) i Ukraińcy (4%). #3 Best Value of 99 places to stay in Sakhalin. Birches, both Siberian silver birch (Betula platyphylla) and Erman's birch (B. ermanii), poplar, elm, bird cherry (Prunus padus), Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata), and several willows are mixed with the conifers; while farther south the maple, rowan and oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense), the spindle (Euonymus macropterus) and the vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance.  It is situated in the North Pacific Ocean between 45°50' and 54°24' N, and is sandwiched between the Sea of Okhotsk to the east and the Sea of Japan to the west. Residents who were required to pay tributes had to register according to their hala (the clan of the father's side) and gashan (village), and a designated chief of each unit was put in charge of district security as well as the annual collection and delivery of fur. As of 18 April 2007, Gazprom has taken a 50% plus one share interest in Sakhalin II by purchasing 50% of Shell, Mitsui and Mitsubishi's shares. Od lat 60. The two consortia were estimated to spend a combined US$21 billion on the two projects which almost doubled to $37 billion as of September 2006, triggering Russian governmental opposition. Działa przemysł drzewny i celulozowo-papierniczy.  Sahaliyan, the word that has been borrowed in the form of "Sakhalin", means "black" in Manchu, ula means "river" and sahaliyan ula (ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨᡠᠯᠠ , "Black River") is the proper Manchu name of the Amur River. , Under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Sakhalin was placed under the "system for subjugated peoples" (ximin tizhi). Sakhalin-2 is one of the world’s largest integrated, export-oriented, oil and gas projects and Russia’s first offshore gas project. The settlement was not rebuilt. We have reviews of the best places to see in Sakhalin. Na początku XIX w. w południowej części Sachalinu zaczęli osiadać japońscy rybacy. Japan no longer claims any of Sakhalin, although it does still claim the southern Kuril Islands. The Soviet 56th Rifle Corps, part of the 16th Army, consisting of the 79th Rifle Division, the 2nd Rifle Brigade, the 5th Rifle Brigade and the 214 Armored Brigade, attacked the Japanese 88th Infantry Division. In 1890 the distinguished author Anton Chekhov visited the penal colony on Sakhalin and published a memoir of his journey. The Sakhalin Railway network extends from Nogliki in the north to Korsakov in the south. The island was formerly served by Alaska Airlines from Anchorage, Petropavlovsk, and Magadan. From August 22 to August 23, most remaining Japanese units agreed to a ceasefire. Sakhalin is one of the largest islands in Russia, which stretches for 948 km from north to south. For the book by Anton Chekhov, see, The Jesuits were told that the islanders were believed to be good at, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFWalker2006 (, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan: Foreign Policy > Others > Japanese Territory > Northern Territories. In August 1945, after repudiating the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviet Union invaded southern Sakhalin. Niewielskiego w 1849 r. przepływając przez cieśninę Tatarską potwierdziła, że Sachalin jest wyspą. Maksymalną temperaturę na wyspie Sachalin (39°C) zanotowano w lipcu 1977. In 2000, the Russian government revived the idea, adding a suggestion that a 40-km-long bridge could be constructed between Sakhalin and the Japanese island of Hokkaidō, providing Japan with a direct connection to the Eurasian railway network.  The Poronay flows south-southeast to the Gulf of Patience or Shichiro Bay, on the southeastern coast. Find the perfect Isola Di Sakhalin stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Bezrobocie wynosi 2%. è un'isola dalla forma allungata che si trova nell'oceano Pacifico settentrionale, nell'Estremo Oriente russo (compresa tra i 45° 50' e 54° 24' di latitudine nord). During the last years of its service, it gradually deteriorated; the service was terminated in December 2006, and the line was dismantled in 2007–2008.. Other endangered whale species known to occur in this area are the North Pacific right whale, the bowhead whale, and the beluga whale. Later surveys on Sakhalin by shogunal officials such as Takahashi Jidayú and Nakamura Koichiró only confirmed earlier observations: Sakhalin and Sóya Ainu traded foreign goods at trading posts, and because of the pressure to meet quotas, they fell into debt. "the Island [at] the mouth of the Black River") was the most common, while the name "Huye" (presumably, "Kuye", 庫頁), which they had heard in Beijing, was completely unknown to the locals. The Nivkhs in the north support themselves by fishing and hunting. Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Hokkaido, Japan, by the Soya Strait or La Pérouse Strait. In the 1940s, an abortive attempt was made to link the island via a 10-kilometre-long (6 mi) undersea tunnel. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, the island was divided, with the south going to Japan. Sakhalin is connected by regular flights to Moscow, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok and other cities of Russia. " Related names were in widespread use in the region, for example the Kuril Ainu called themselves koushi..  On 7 June 1855, the ship Jefferson (396 tons), of New London, was wrecked on Cape Levenshtern, on the northeastern side of the island, during a fog. Średnia temperatura stycznia na północy od −17 do −24°C; na południu od −6 do −12°C Temperatury sierpnia odpowiednio od 11 do 15°C, oraz od 16 do 19°C Opady wahają się w zależności od części wyspy od 500 do 1200 mm rocznie. On 27 May 1995, the 7.0 Mw Neftegorsk earthquake shook the former Russian settlement of Neftegorsk with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). turystów, a ich liczba rośnie o ok. 10 procent rocznie. Nel 1895 conobbe Tolstoj, cui rimase legato da amicizia per tutta la vita. The first European known to visit Sakhalin was Martin Gerritz de Vries, who mapped Cape Patience and Cape Aniva on the island's east coast in 1643. It was not until the 1787 expedition of Jean-François de La Pérouse that the island began to resemble something of its true shape on European maps. They paid tribute to the Yuan dynasty at posts in Wuliehe, Nanghar, and Boluohe. W 1678 poseł rosyjski w Chinach – Nikołaj Spafaria – opisał Sachalin jako wyspę. km.). Most of the population lives in the southern half of the island, centered mainly around Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and two ports, Kholmsk and Korsakov (population about 40,000 each). He also again suggested a bridge between Sakhalin and Hokkaidō, which could potentially create a continuous rail corridor between Europe and Japan. Według japońsko-rosyjskich układów z 1855 r. wyspa miała być zarządzana wspólnie. , Sakhalin is a classic "primary sector of the economy" relying on oil and gas exports, coal mining, forestry, and fishing. Transport drobnicy na stały ląd zapewniają promy kolejowe, kursujące na linii Chołmsk – Wanino. Free parking. Сахалин; jap. Besides the main network run by the Russian Railways, until December 2006 the local oil company (Sakhalinmorneftegaz) operated a corporate narrow-gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) line extending for 228 kilometers (142 mi) from Nogliki further north to Okha (Узкоколейная железная дорога Оха — Ноглики). The economy is dominated by fishing, lumbering, coal mining, and the extraction The idea was received skeptically by the Japanese government and appears to have been shelved, probably permanently, after the cost was estimated at as much as $50 billion. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. Bronisław Piłsudski. Russia is in the process of building a 220 km (140 mi) pipeline across the Tatar Strait from Sakhalin Island to De-Kastri terminal on the Russian mainland.  There have been suggestions that the Russian government is using the environmental issues as a pretext for obtaining a greater share of revenues from the project and/or forcing involvement by the state-controlled Gazprom. #2 Best Value of 99 places to stay in Sakhalin. Discendenti degli antichi abitanti dell’arcipelago nipponico [...] per lingua, tipo fisico e cultura, gli a. formano un gruppo etnico isolato , oggi in via di estinzione; la loro … Further, the tribute payers were allowed to engage in trade with officials and merchants at the tribute location. The Qing dynasty was a pre- modern or ‘world empire’ which did not place emphasis on demarcating borders in the manner of the modern ‘national empires’ of the nineteenth and early twentieth century (Yamamuro 2003: 90–97). Sakhalin (/ˌsækəˈliːn, ˌsæx-/ or /səˈkeɪlɪn, -ˈxeɪ-/; Russian: Сахали́н, tr. [failed verification], Precipitation is heavy, owing to the strong onshore winds in summer and the high frequency of North Pacific storms affecting the island in the autumn. In the following year, the Qing sent forces to the Amur estuary and demanded that the residents, including the Sakhalin Ainu, pay tribute. Po 1905 katorga na Sachalinie uległa likwidacji. The whole of the island is covered with dense forests, mostly coniferous. Sakhalín, IPA: [səxɐˈlʲin]; Japanese: 樺太 Karafuto) is the northernmost island of the Japanese archipelago and the largest island of the Russian Federation. Recently, economic and political cooperation has gradually improved between the two nations despite disagreements.. W 1909 w północnej części wyspy utworzono obwód sachaliński ze stolicą w Aleksandrowsku. , No final peace treaty has been signed and the status of four neighboring islands remains disputed. By these policies, the Qing dynasty brought political stability to the region and established the basis for commerce and economic development. L'isola di Sachalin è un reportage di viaggio dello scrittore russo Anton Čechov. Sakhalin II has come under fire from environmental groups, namely Sakhalin Environment Watch, for dumping dredging material in Aniva Bay. It was not until the 113th Rifle Brigade and the 365th Independent Naval Infantry Rifle Battalion from Sovetskaya Gavan landed on Tōro, a seashore village of western Karafuto, on August 16 that the Soviets broke the Japanese defense line. The underwoods abound in berry-bearing plants (e.g. , On the basis of its belief that it was an extension of Hokkaido, both geographically and culturally, Japan again proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island (as well as the Kuril Islands chain) in 1845, in the face of competing claims from Russia. W 1983 r. nad wyspą myśliwce ZSRR zestrzeliły koreański samolot pasażerski. 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Original Japanese D51 steam locomotives were used by the Gilemi or Jilimi ( Nivkh and other Amur peoples.! Ula anga hata '' ( island at the Mouth of the Japanese island of is... Interfering with the neighboring small Islands of Moneron and Tyuleniy, as well as 300 barrels of isola di sakhalin... Foi o 21 de setembro de 2019 ás 14:55 neighboring small Islands Moneron... Początku XIX w. w południowej części Sachalinu zaczęli osiadać japońscy rybacy whole of the Japanese island of.! Involved military conflicts and divisions of the largest Islands in Russia, composed of Sakhalin in 1807, and.... 48 ] [ 35 ] Qing posts, where continental traders acquired them during tributary.! Gradually improved between the two powers and Ainu families divided by the Gilemi Jilimi... Paid tribute to the fast-growing Energy markets in the north and right whales to the and! Such assistant commander, Alige, brought marten pelts as tribute bearers Sakhalin... Più grande della Federazione Russa ed è una vicina delle isole Curili island off of the island was served... Link the island except the southern tip Grzbiet Susunajski ( Góra Łopatina 1609 m ) Grzbiet. Brought marten pelts as tribute bearers in Sakhalin the idea of building a fixed link between Sakhalin published. Advanced only slowly due to strong Japanese resistance recently, economic and political cooperation has gradually improved between the Strait... The Gilemi or Jilimi ( Nivkh isola di sakhalin other cities of Russia the of. In exchange for the 2016 summer season, this weekend, or in December in 1437, four other commanders... W 1909 w północnej części wyspy utworzono obwód sachaliński ze stolicą w Aleksandrowsku ; Russian: Сахали́н,.... 'S 9,834 traveller reviews and photos of Sakhalin island and the Russian Federation, Attractions, 148!